Modelling Heat & Mass Transfer during Liquid Hydrogen Refuelling - Research

Ulster University - Belfast

Modelling Heat & Mass Transfer during Liquid Hydrogen Refuelling - Research

Liquified hydrogen (LH2) is considered as the most practical storage method onboard heavy duty vehicles (HDV), trains, ships and planes in case of long distances. Currently there are no fuelling protocols for hydrogen inventory in excess of 10 kg when refuelling gaseous hydrogen. Modelling of fuelling of cryogenic hydrogen and LH2 transfer will pose even more challenges due to significantly lower temperatures and presence of two-phase flows with evaporation and condensation.

LH2 refuelling will require development of innovative safety strategies and engineering solutions for storage and transfer infrastructure, understanding of underlying physical phenomena, development and validation of contemporary Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) and reduced engineering models and tools for safety design. The developed and validated LH2 transfer model will allow to run “numerical experiments” to get insight into underlying physical phenomena avoiding high costs, hazards and associated risks typical for large-scale experimental studies, and, on practical side, develop LH2 refuelling protocols.

The successful candidate will:
- critically review the state-of-the-art in safety of LH2 with focus on fuelling/refuelling,

- develop a CFD model to simulate LH2 refuelling for the entire hydrogen refuelling station (HRS) or bunkering station (from storage tank to onboard tank),

- validate the developed CFD model against experimental data available in literature or from partners in ongoing projects,

- use the validated model to support development of inherently safer fuelling/bunkering protocols,

- explore potential for development of reduced models to support further advancement of the e-Laboratory of Hydrogen Safety (

Entry requirements

Essential criteria
Applicants should hold, or expect to obtain, a First or Upper Second Class Honours Degree in a subject relevant to the proposed area of study.

We may also consider applications from those who hold equivalent qualifications, for example, a Lower Second Class Honours Degree plus a Master’s Degree with Distinction.

In exceptional circumstances, the University may consider a portfolio of evidence from applicants who have appropriate professional experience which is equivalent to the learning outcomes of an Honours degree in lieu of academic qualifications.

- Clearly defined research proposal detailing background, research questions, aims and methodology.

Get additional information for International applicants at

English language requirements
In order to be admitted to research study at Ulster, you will need to provide evidence of your English language proficiency as part of your application.

Get full details on the requirements for both home and overseas applicants can be found on our English language requirements page.

Application dates

How to Apply
We are delighted that you are considering Ulster University for your research studies.

Get full details on the application process and further guidance on how to apply, and what you will need to upload as part of your application (see "Application Date Weblink" below).

Once you have identified supervisors, discussed a research proposal and are ready to make an application, please apply using the online application system (see "Application Weblink").

Ulster University welcomes applications from all sections of the community and from persons with disabilities. It is University policy to assess all applications using academic criteria and on the basis of equality of opportunity and you should be assured that reasonable adjustments will be made should you require them.

Submission Deadline Wednesday 31st May 2023 4.00pm.

More details
  • Qualification letters


  • Qualifications

    Degree - Doctoral at UK Level 8

  • Attendance type

    Full time,Daytime

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