Cover letters for graduate jobs
A cover letter is similar to the ‘further information’ box on a job application form. It’s your chance to demonstrate how well you fit the requirements of the job and it’s at least as important as the CV it accompanies.
What to include in a cover letter
A CV cover letter should be no more than one page long – around four or five brief paragraphs.
Always include the name of the person, not 'Dear Sir/Madam'. This is particularly important when you're making speculative applications because you want your letter to reach someone who can act on it.
Specify why you are writing (eg in response to an advertisement or on a speculative basis). If it's about an advertised job, state the job title you are applying for (and reference number, if there is one) and where you saw it advertised.
State briefly why you want to work for this particular organisation and why they should employ you. Don’t repeat what is in the CV, but highlight your ‘unique selling points’. Be as specific as possible about how your experience matches the job. (If the letter is accompanying an application form rather than a CV, this is not always necessary as you will have used the form to make these points.)
Give details of your availability for interview. If relevant (eg if the employer has several different graduate schemes), state which other positions with the organisation you would also like to be considered for.
Finish with a keen but professional sign-off.
How to write a business letter
As with all types of communication, there are conventions for business writing. If you're not used to writing business letters, the following tips will show you what to include and how to present the information.
Your name and address
Put your contact details at the top of the letter – right-justified (ie lined up against the right-hand margin) or centred. Include your postal address, telephone number and email address.
The recipient's name and address
This is usually left-justified (ie lined up against the left-hand margin).
Leave one line space below the recipient’s address, then put the date you are writing the letter.
Always start ‘Dear’ followed by the person’s title (Mr, Ms, Dr etc) and surname, eg ‘Dear Mr Smith’.
If you don’t know their name, start ‘Dear Sir or Madam’ (NOT ‘Madame’ – that means something different!). But it is always best to find out the name of the person who you want to read your letter.
If the recipient is a woman and you don’t know her marital status, don’t make assumptions as this can cause offence; use ‘Ms’.
Leave one line space below the salutation, then put the subject of your letter, underlined. For example ‘Application for graduate trainee position’. Include the job reference number if there is one. This makes life easier for the HR person reading the letter. In an email, this will go in the subject line.
The body text
Write clearly and succinctly. Check out the Plain English Campaign website for tips.
Normally, a business letter should not be more than one side of A4. Structure your letter with a beginning, a middle and an end.
Use business-like language: this should be closer to the essays you write at college than the letters you send to your parents.
Finish the letter ‘Yours sincerely’. Leave a space for your signature, then type your name.
‘Yours faithfully’ is traditionally used when you don’t know the name of the person you are writing to, but is becoming less common.
Cover letters by email
If you are asked to send your application by email, the email will become your cover letter. The same rules apply about the style of writing. Keep it formal. Write words in full: ‘text speak’, abbreviations or emoticons are a no-no. Always check your spelling and grammar.
Use the subject line of the email to say what your letter is about, eg ‘Application for graduate trainee position’. Include the job reference number if there is one.
As with a letter, you should begin with ‘Dear’. Instead of ‘Yours sincerely’, it is acceptable to end with ‘Best wishes’ or ‘Regards’.
Cover letter checklist
- Are your contact details up to date?
- Have you spelt the employer's name correctly?
- Have you included the job title, reference number and where you saw the advertisement?
- Have you signed the letter?
- Have you kept a copy?
Cover letter tips
- Use good quality, white writing paper and a neat layout on one side of A4.
- Convince them you want the job: demonstrate that you have researched the company and know why you are applying.
- Use a business-like, professional tone.
- Sound confident and provide a clear message about your fit for the job.